China's government says that the "one-child policy" has helped the country achieve 400 million fewer births during the past 30 years. And indeed since the policy has been introduced, the population growth rate has decreased significantly.Does this mean that the policy is needed for population control?
  • The government has already been challenged over whether this large decrease in births is entirely due to the implementation of this policy.
  • A team of independent Chinese and foreign academics completed an examination of the policy and found that there was a fall in fertility rate in the 1970's when the government began to encourage delayed marriages, longer intervals between births and fewer children and that this fall was mainly responsible for the reduction.
  • According to Prof. Wang Feng (University of California), fertility rates fell from mote than 5 to just over 2 before the one child policy was introduced.
  • Yicheng, a couty in the northern province of Shanxi (China), has significantly lowered its population growth rate for 25 years with the more relaxed 2 child policy.
  • It has been suggested that because of urban development, people may well prefer to have fewer children
It has been shown that there may be other reasons, besides the one child policy, for the apparent population control in China. It has also been shown that there are other, less stringent policies that have worked in China. So, to answer the question, the one child policy is not necessarily needed for population control as there are other policies that are less demanding that could replace this policy.

Population control is a factor required in order to prevent demographic problem such as overpopulation and overpopulation is capable of affecting the environmental and economical status of a country in a negative way. Here are some examples of the negative affects of overpopulation

-Environmental effects-
  • Increase in energy required leading to depletion in natural resources.
  • Increase in use of fossil fuels leading to air pollution.
  • Increase in food products leading to factorized farming. (Use of chemical products such as fertilizer will contaminate the soil.)
  • Carbon emission increase due to deforestrisation and causing global warming.

-Economic effects-
  • High possibility of unemployment in the future.
  • Quality of life remain low.
  • Deceleration in economic advance

China's one child policy is considered as a factor of huge decrease in Chinese population, and it is true. However the decrease in the fertility rate caused by the "one-child policy", has brought benefits to China.
  • 3.9% annual energy saving from 1980~2005
  • 19.1% reduction in energy intensity
  • 1510 million ron Carbon dioxide emission decrease.