1. Empowerment

  • In many countries, tradition and culture pose obstacles to women’s economic development, so understanding their impact is a key to effective development policies.
  • Most women wont feel confident enough to run for jobs ranking high in governments and big TNC's as they feel they wont make it as the role is generally done by a male.
  • Education, especially for girls, has social and economic benefits for society as a whole.
  • Educated women have more economic opportunities and engage more fully in public life.
  • Women who are educated tend to have fewer and healthier children, and they are more likely to attend school.
  • Education also increases the ability of women and girls to go and find jobs and make themselves employable.

2. Culture & Status



Expectations about attributes and behaviors appropriate to women or men and about the relations between women and men – in other words, gender – are shaped by culture. Gender identities and gender relations are critical aspects of culture because they shape the way daily life is lived in the family, but also in the wider community and the workplace.
There have been differences in mens' and womens' roles since ancient times. At the start they were mostly due to the greater physical strength of men and in general the physical differences of the two. In time the role of the 'male' leading figure managed to establish itself, both in the family unit and in wider perspectives (such as politics). This situation is slowly starting to balance out nowadays in most MEDCs, but in many LEDCs and developing countries there is still a great difference between men and women.
Religion and traditions play a main role when comparing the status of men and women. For example in many Middle Easter countries, such as Saudi Arabia, there are strong religious impositions on women. Further more, the traditions a country has, it has had for centuries, and what may seem unacceptable to a country may seem normal to another.


for a good reference see: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/2/9/1896320.pdf

3. Education

  • In developing countries women usually receive less education than men, this leads to women experiencing far less employment opportunities;
  • If gender inequality rights would be considered in each country then education, employment and health care would influence a developing country's growth, e.g. if Sub Saharan Africa could get equal schooling, child mortality would decrease by 25%;
  • Many girls in many countries have a great potential, however due to the lack of women education investment, they don't achieve their expectations;
  • A country would benefit economically because both men and women would have equal economic opportunities, therefore increasing the national GDP;
  • Of the 132 million children that don't attend schools worldwide. 64% are girls;
  • Girls lack of access o education isn't always related to scarcity of places in schools, it also includes attitudes and biases in communities and families
  • In spite of all this, In MEDCs where the majority of women have access to all professions, due to stereotypes, they decide to opt for female occupations.

4. Employment


  • In general, women earn substantially less than their male counterparts. This does not apply just to LEDCs but also to MEDCs.
  • In the UK, women earn on average less than 80 % of men's average annual salary. This is for the same work and time as men.
  • 44 top firms who employ almost a quarter of finance sector workers were questioned. The sector's age profile is 25-39, when women have childcare responsibilities.
  • Women earned on average £2,875 annually in contrast to £14,554 for men.
  • Women's education in Middle Eastern countries is rising rapidly but these women do not work for salaries.
  • It is estimated that household incomes could rise by 25% if women in these countries worked.
  • In middle income countries like Mexico, women with high levels of education are largely unemployed.
  • This leads to a negative impact on growth as the economy does not use half its resources.
  • In Mexico, women earn 15-20 % less than men.
  • By introducing schemes to help women in the workplace, the economy grows as more women are able to work.
  • In Mexico, the National Institute for Women developed a programme to certify companies with gender equal policies and practices.
  • Women are also encouraged to work by the introduction of family-orientated work schemes such as part-time or job-sharing.


5. Migration

  • In China, young men are preferred over women to work in cities.
  • In poor countries such as Ethiopia, women have less chances to migrate because they are less looked after e.g. not going to schools.
  • In strict Muslim societies such as Saudi Arabia and Yemen, women are less likely to migrate than men.

6. Birth ratio & Family size

  • In Asian country, boy babies birth ratio is higher than girl babies.
  • In country which allow marry more than one time, they have big family because of their husband got other wives if their wife can't have boy baby.
  • In India, abortion is very serious problem. Abortions are common when it is found out that they will have a girl.

7. Health & Life Expectancy

Abstract
Aim To quantify gender inequality in life expectancy at birth (LEB) in New Zealand and the contribution to it made by different age groups and causes of death. To examine the response of the health sector.
Method Determination of the trend in sex differences in LEB. Multiple decrements decomposition of LEB differences into components ages and causes. Review of the gender equity policies and priorities of New Zealand’s main health sector stakeholders.
Results A difference between the sexes in LEB of 4.7 years for Māori and 4.0 years for non-Māori, reverses the historically lower gender disparity among the Māori. Over half of the sex difference in LEB is accounted for by heart disease and all types of cancer and almost a quarter by accidents and suicide but male survival disadvantage is evident in many other causes of death. The health sector is beginning to acknowledge the survival disadvantage of men as inequitable, and reducing disparity as a legitimate goal for health policy.
Conclusion Although gender inequality in LEB is declining among the non-Māori it remains high among the Māori. Smoking habits may explain some of the difference in LEB but policies must also address the causes of sex differences in accidental death and suicide.


Sex differences in survival—Male life expectancy in New Zealand in 2000–2002 was 4.8 years less than female life expectancy. This disparity represents a decline from the 1970s when it was over 6 years but it has really only just returned to the degree of inequality that was last seen in about 1950 (Figure 1). Moreover, gender inequality in Māori survival remains close to historical highs, and for the first time has surpassed that in the non-Māori population.
Decomposition of the sex difference in 2000–2002 life expectancy by age revealed that although women have lower mortality at all ages, approximately half of the female survival advantage occurs at ages 65–84. Among the Māori, though, it is more evenly spread with this age group responsible for just 31%. Interestingly, only 2.3% of the difference can be attributed to higher male infant mortality and only 3.3% to all ages under 15 years. The overall low infant and child mortality in both sexes is mainly responsible for this small contribution, because male babies still have a 20–30% higher risk of dying than female babies.


Figure 1. Trend in the gender difference in life expectancy for Māori and
non-Māori

content04.jpg
content04.jpg

Table 1. Decomposition of the gender differences in 2000–2002 life expectancy at birth into component causes of death

Cause of death (ICD10 codes)
Standardised mortality rate (deaths/10,000/year)
Effect on the difference in life expectancy
Men
Women
Years
%
Ischaemic heart disease, diseases of pulmonary circulation & other forms of heart disease (I20-I24, I25-51)
23.8
15.7
+1.59
33
All malignant neoplasms except prostate, lung, breast and uterine (including cervix) (C00-C32, C67-C96)
15.7
10.4
+1.02
21
Cancer of the prostate (C61)
3.7
0
+0.64
13
All accidents (V01-X59, Y40-Y86, Y88)
3.8
1.8
+0.62
13
Suicide, self-inflicted injury and other external causes (X60-84, Y10-36, Y87, Y89)
2.1
0.6
+0.47
10
Cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung (C33,C34)
5.0
2.7
+0.40
8
Chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma (J40-J46)
5.7
3.4
+0.38
8
Arterial embolism and thrombosis (I71-I78)
1.7
0.9
+0.14
3
Diabetes (E10-E14)
2.5
1.7
+0.14
3
Cervical cancer (C53)
0
0.3
-0.07
-1
Uterine cancer (not cervical) (C45-C55)
0
0.4
-0.08
-2
Cerebrovascular disease (I60-I69)
7.4
6.6
-0.12
-3
Breast cancer (C50)
<0.1
3.0
-0.61
-13

Analysis of the contribution of specific causes of death to the gender difference in life expectancy is summarised in Table 1. The causes listed, including female cancers, when taken in combination explain 95% of the sex difference in life expectancy (4.52 of 4.77 years).

The health sector response to gender inequalities in survival—The survival disadvantage of males over females is well known. It is a legitimate question, therefore, to ask what actions, if any, the Ministry of Health and other key health sector actors in New Zealand have taken to reduce these inequalities. Ministry of Health policy on reducing health inequalities is articulated in the New Zealand Health Strategy.

8. Legal rights & land tenure

  • Women are denied their rights to land and property, financial resources, employment and education.
  • Women are not allowed to drive in Saudi Arabia. This ban comes from the strict interpretation that women need to be accompanied by a legal guardian in public.
  • Women also cannot vote in municipal elections in Saudi Arabia
  • Many women are not involved in making decisions surrounding their own marriages due to forced marriage, even though it is banned.
  • Divorced women can expect less than a sack of grain as a parting gift from their former husbands. However, nowadays they own 50% of the property.
  • Most land titles are held by men
  • In Ethiopia, before the country's land certification effort, women didn't have any rights to property.
  • Land certificates in rural areas boost confidence and status of women.